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Offshore Wind Energy
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The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy is responsible for implementing the road map for offshore wind energy while ensuring that the impact on birds, bats and marine mammals remains within the acceptable levels set by the relevant legislation.
The Ministry asked Rijkswaterstaat in to initiate a research programme Wozep: the Dutch Governmental Offshore Wind Ecological Programme, to develop knowledge in this field. Wozep is not the first research programme to address these issues: it draws on research in the previous decade looking at prioritised vulnerable species. Figure 1: Locations of present dark green and planned route map offshore wind parks source: RVO.
Offshore Wind Research | Wind | NREL
Our research areas The effects of wind farms can be broken down into two broad categories: effects above and below the surface. The impact on marine mammals the harbour porpoise, and the harbour and grey seal of impulsive underwater noise caused by pile-driving during the construction of wind farms is one of the main underwater research topics. The focus above the surface is on the risks for birds and bats of colliding with rotor blades, and the displacement of seabirds by wind farms, resulting in a loss of habitat.
Alongside the research looking at these priority species, the programme is also addressing the long-term development of benthos in wind farms and the effect of electromagnetic fields.
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In addition to this species-based research, Wozep also looks at the possible, more long-term, ecosystem impact of the development of large areas with offshore wind farms. The effects on physical and hydrodynamic processes are being studied, as is the possible effect on the lower trophic groups.
In particular, incorporating spatial autocorrelation in seabird numbers is an important factor in reducing the risk of wrongly identifying an effect of a wind farm on bird abundance. Synthesis and applications.
Impact of offshore wind farms on marine species
The development of offshore wind farms is often in conflict with nature conservation interests. Environmental impact assessment and monitoring is essential to protect and manage the marine environment. The method described here will allow scarce data to be utilized effectively as a basis for well-informed environmental decisions.
In addition, the method will assist in the design of optimal monitoring procedures at a given site, balancing costs and effectiveness in detecting potentially harmful impacts.